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Adrenaline (Epinephrine) - catabolic hormone and affects almost all types of metabolism. Under his influence, there is an increase in blood glucose and increased tissue metabolism. As contrainsular hormone and acting on β2 adrenoreceptors tissue and liver, adrenaline increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, inhibits glycogen synthesis in the liver and skeletal muscle, and enhances the capture tissue glucose utilization, increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes. Also adrenaline enhances lipolysis (fat breakdown) and inhibits the synthesis of fats. This is ensured by its effect on β1 adrenoreceptors adipose tissue. At high concentrations of epinephrine enhances protein catabolism.
1 ml of solution for injection or for topical administration contains 1 mg of epinephrine hydrochloride; in multiples of 5 vials of 1 ml or 1 vial of 30 ml, respectively.
Epinephrine stimulates the CNS, albeit poorly penetrates the blood-brain barrier. It increases wakefulness, mental energy and activity, causing mental mobilization, orientation reactions and feelings of anxiety, worry, or stress. Adrenaline is generated when border situations.
Adrenaline action due to the influence on the a and b - adrenoceptors and largely coincides with the excitation of sympathetic nerves effects: it narrows the blood vessels of the abdominal cavity, skin, mucous membranes, and to a lesser extent skeletal muscle vessels; adrenaline raises blood pressure, strengthens and increases the rate of heart beat; due to the increase of pressure occurs reflex excitation of the vagus nerve center, providing an inhibitory effect on the heart, resulting in heart rate may slow down. Adrenaline can cause abnormal heart rhythm (tachycardia, arrythmia), especially in patients with coronary heart disease, as well as anesthesia during surgery.
Epinephrine relaxes the muscles of the bronchi and the intestine, enhances pupils, improves functional activity of skeletal muscles, increases blood sugar, increases tissue metabolism, increases myocardial oxygen demand.
By action of adrenaline tartrate different from epinephrine hydrochloride, but due to the difference in relative molecular weight to obtain the same effect tartrate is used in higher concentration.
It has a pronounced effect on the cardiovascular system. Increases the frequency and force of heart contractions, shock and cardiac output. It improves the AV-conductance increases automaticity. It increases myocardial oxygen demand. It causes vasoconstriction abdominal organs, skin, mucous membranes, to a lesser extent - skeletal muscle. Increases in blood pressure (especially systolic), in high doses increases the CSO. Pressor effect can cause short-term reflex slowing of the heart rate.
Increased blood pressure, tachycardia, arrhythmias, pain in the heart.
Individual. Enter n / a, at least - in / m or / in (slow). Depending on the clinical situation the single dose for adults may be from 1 mg to 200 mg; for children - 100-500 mg. Injection solution can be used as eye drops.
Locally applied to stop bleeding - used tampons soaked in a solution of epinephrine.
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Complex of cytamins for the visual system