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Paxil - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

06 Aug 2019

Antidepressant: Paxil

Active ingredient: Paroxetine (paroxetine)

Analogs: Rexetin - Gedeon Richter (Hungary), Adepress - Veropharm (Russia), Aktaparoxetine - Aktavis (Iceland), Plizil - Pliva (Croatia), Paroxetine hydrochloride hemihydrate, Sirestill - Italfarmaco (Italy)

"Paxil" refers to the antidepressants of the SSRIs group (Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Thus, his work is based on selective blocking of the absorption of serotonin by the membrane of the presynaptic cell. As a result, the concentration of this neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft is significantly increased, which in turn exerts a pronounced antidepressant effect.

In this case, the substance that forms the basis of the drug (paroxetine) does not interfere in the work of the cardiovascular system, does not exert a depressing effect on the central nervous system and does not affect the psychomotor functions. Paxil does not provoke changes in both blood pressure and palpitations, as well as electrical activity of the brain (provided that the patient taking the drug does not have health problems with the above systems of organs). Paxil (paroxetine) is not able to cause sleep disturbances during its morning reception. On the contrary, with regular administration of the drug, there is an improvement in the quality of sleep.

Psychotrophic activity of Paxil is expressed in a tangible antidepressant and anti-anxiety action. When it is used in doses that are more than necessary for blocking the reuptake of serotonin, there may appear minor activating effects. In general, the effectiveness of this drug in the treatment of depressive conditions almost reaches the effectiveness of tricyclic antidepressants. In addition, Paxil causes an improvement in the condition of patients who have not been helped by standard antidepressant therapy. Positive changes occur already during the first week of application. Over the next few weeks, the state of patients with depression and suicidal tendencies improves dramatically. Observation of people taking Paxil during the year showed that the drug perfectly protects against recurrence of depression. Outstanding results demonstrate the use of paroxetine for the treatment of patients with panic disorder in combination with drugs that normalize cognitive function: this approach proved to be much more effective than monotherapy with drugs that correct cognitive behavioral function.

Indications for use:

- Any depression, including depression, reactive, severe endogenous depression and depression in combination with anxiety disorders;
- therapy, prevention and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents 7-17 years old, and in adults. In this case, patients who took Paxil for a year or more are practically not affected by recurrence of OCD. The drug retains its effects even with such a long period of use;
therapy, prevention and treatment of panic disorder (including agoraphobia). Paxil retains its effectiveness and prevents the recurrence of the disorder;
- therapy, prevention and treatment of social phobia in children and adolescents 7 - 17 years, and adults. The effectiveness of paroxetine in the treatment of this phobia does not weaken throughout the year;
- therapy, prevention and treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. In this case, Paxil also prevents the return of the disorder, and its effectiveness does not decrease within a year;
- treatment of post-traumatic stress;

Contraindications: Paxil should not be taken concomitantly with the use of MAO inhibitors. The time between paroxetine and MAO should be at least 2 weeks. The simultaneous use of thioridazine is also prohibited. In addition, one should pay attention to the individual sensitivity to the components of the antidepressant (with hypersensitivity it is necessary to abandon its use).

Dosing and Administration: In the treatment of depression in adults, the standard therapeutic dose is 20 mg per day. However, if Paxil has insufficient influence on the patient's condition, it is possible to increase the dosage to the maximum of 50 mg per day. Do not dramatically increase the dose, it is recommended to gradually add 10 mg every week. Increase the dosage is recommended after 2-3 weeks after the start of the drug.

In the treatment of obsessive-compulsive syndrome, it is necessary to start taking the drug in an amount of 20 mg per day. Then add 10 mg every week. After reaching 40 mg / day, it is necessary to suspend the increase in dosage. If the desired effect can not be achieved, it is possible to increase the dose to 60 mg / day. For children aged 7 to 17 years, the daily dose can be increased from 10 mg per day to 50 mg.

In the treatment of panic disorder in adults, the average dosage is 40 mg / day. In order to avoid a possible exacerbation of the symptoms of the disorder, it is necessary to start the dose size of the drug from 10 mg / day. A weekly dose increase of 10 mg should be stopped when the effect is achieved. The maximum possible dosage is 60 mg per day.

With social phobia, the dosage for an adult begins at 20 mg / day, the child (8 - 17 years) with 10 mg / day. Dosage should be increased by 10 mg every week and stop the increase in the event that the drug will produce a tangible positive effect. The maximum dose for both adults and children is 50 mg per day.

In generalized anxiety disorder in adults, the maximum dose is 50 mg / day, the average dose is 20 mg.For the removal of post-traumatic stress disorder in adults, a dosage of 20 mg / day is recommended, which can be gradually increased to 50 mg. Older patients should start using Paxil from an average adult dose. The upper dosage limit should not exceed 40 mg / day. Patients with kidney and liver disease should not increase the dosage above the minimum.

In the treatment of depression, the course of taking the drug may last several months, while treating obsessive-compulsive disorder - even longer. "Paxil" must be consumed until all symptoms disappear completely. Antidepressant should be taken once a day during the first half of the day during meals. The medicine should be washed down with water, swallowing the tablets without chewing.

Discontinuation of use: Discontinue use of the drug should be gradual. It is required to reduce the dosage by 10 mg weekly until the amount of the drug taken reaches 20 mg / day for adults and 10 mg / day for children. After this, take Paxil within one week, and then completely stop using it. If withdrawal symptoms appear, resume taking the initial dose of the drug, then try a slower rate of dosage reduction.

Side effects: The most frequent side effects of the drug Paxil (paroxetine): decreased appetite, nausea, dry mouth, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, yawning, increased sweating, occur in a small percentage of patients; in clinical trials, side effects were found in about 6 % of subjects

Storage conditions: Paxil must be stored at a temperature not exceeding 30 C in a place inaccessible to children.
Attention, this page is only informational in nature, before consulting with the antidepressant "Paxil" (paroxetine), consult a physician.

Terms of selling from the pharmacy: Without a prescription.


Ludiomil - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

27 May 2019

Antidepressant: Ludiomil

Active ingredient: Maprotiline (maprotiline)

Analogs: Ludomil, Flexyx, Ladiomil.

Maprotiline belongs to the group of tetracyclic antidepressants, while possessing a large number of properties inherent in tricyclics. The spectrum of its action is very well balanced, the drug improves mood, relieves excitement, psychomotor retardation and eliminates anxiety. In addition, Maprotiline is able to have beneficial effects on the manifestations of somatic nature with masked depression. The drug inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex, with little or no significant effect on the secondary capture of serotonin. In general, maprotiline has a pronounced antidepressant effect, together with an anti-anxiety and mild sedative effect. The most effective in dealing with the circular forms of depression, namely with such manifestations as thoughts of own insignificance, low value, feelings of anguish and guilt. Works well as a means to get rid of suicidal ideation. The drug can be successfully used in adolescent and even children's practice of treating depressive conditions. Effective in the presence of a protracted form of depression, resistant to therapy.

Ludiomil - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

Patients tend to tolerate maprotiline well, as it has significantly fewer side effects than tricyclic antidepressants.

Indications for use:

- Treatment of involutional as well as endogenous depressions;
- Treatment of depressions of exhaustion, psychogenic, reactive, and also neurotic depressions;
- Treatment of somatogenic depressions;
- Treatment of masked depressions;
- Treatment of climacteric (menopausal depressions);
- Treatment of other depressive mood disorders that have a corresponding symptomatology;
- Irritability or dysphoria, anxiety;
- Apathy states (especially in elderly people);
- Complaints of a somatic and psychosomatic nature in depression with or without anxiety.


- The drug is not allowed for people with epilepsy;
- States that cause increased convulsive activity;
- Hypersensitivity to the components of the drug and tricyclic antidepressants;
- Closed-angle glaucoma;
- Myocardial infarction in acute stage;
- Adenoma of the prostate (and other diseases that cause a delay in the outflow of urine);
- Expressed violations of the liver and kidneys.

In addition, do not use maprotiline in women during pregnancy and lactation, as well as people in a state of alcohol poisoning and poisoning with psychotropic / hypnotic drugs. Maprotiline is not taken during treatment with MAO inhibitors.

Dosage and administration: The tablets of the drug must be taken, swallowed whole and washed down with plenty of water.
Dosage should be determined, trying to take into account the patient's reaction to taking the drug as much as possible, as well as the patient's condition. It is necessary to strive to achieve a therapeutic effect, using as sparing a dosage regimen as possible. Patients should remember that exceeding the daily dose of 150 mg is not recommended. For treatment of moderate and moderate depression, "Ludiomil " is taken in an amount of 25 to 75 mg per day. The dose can be divided into several receptions (usually up to 3).

In cases of severe depression it is recommended to start taking the drug with the same 75 mg / day, however, if necessary, the dosage may increase to the maximum (150 mg / day).

In cases of increased severity, maprotiline is administered intravenously, determining a minimum dosage of 25-50 mg / day. This dose can be increased up to the maximum in case of lack of adequate effect.

Children should take maprotiline with caution, the dosage of adolescents, if necessary, can be equal to the dosing regimen for adult patients. In the event that treatment with maprotiline gives tangible results, it makes sense to gradually reduce the dosage. If this is followed by worsening of the patient's condition, the previous dosage regimen should be immediately restored.

Side effects: The most frequent of them: nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, abdominal discomfort, dry mouth, anxiety. It is not always possible to clearly distinguish the side effects of maprotiline and the symptoms of depression itself.

Storage conditions: Store the drug in a place inaccessible to children at temperatures not exceeding 30 C.

Terms of selling from the pharmacy: Without a prescription.


Velaxin - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

20 May 2019

Antidepressant: Velaxin (Tianeptine)

Active ingredient: venlafaxine (Venlafaxine)

Synonyms: Velafax, Ephevelone, Effexor, Phenethyls, Ephektin, Velaksor.

Velaxin (venlafaxine) belongs to the class of antidepressants-serotonin reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine. In addition to arresting the reuptake of these two neurotransmitters, the drug has a weak blocking effect on the reuptake of dopamine. It is generally believed that the basis of its antidepressant effect is its ability to enhance the transfer of impulses between neurons of the central nervous system.

Velaxin - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

Studies of the efficacy of venlafaxine in the treatment of depressions of varying severity have shown that the drug is able to quickly remission. So, just after a month of treatment with venlafaxine, every second patient achieves remission. If the drug is taken within 3 months, the chance of remission is 80%. In this respect, velaxin (venlafaxine) shows almost the best results among all antidepressants. The drug positively affects the various components of the depressive syndrome, while possessing a high degree of safety for the average person.

Indications for use: Treatment and prevention of depression (including those accompanied by increased anxiety).

Contraindications: Do not take pregnant women (and breastfeeding mothers); children under 18; with hypersensitivity to substances in the drug, as well as simultaneously with MAO inhibitors (wait at least a week).

Dosage and administration: Velaxin is taken with food, inside, without chewing and washing with a lot of water, best at the same time. Do not grind, dissolve in liquids, mix with food, etc.

It is recommended to start taking the drug from a dosage of 37.5 mg twice a day. Subsequently, the dose may be increased (by 75 mg / day every four days). The maximum daily dose for treatment of moderate depression is 225 mg (it must be divided into three doses), for the treatment of severe depressions - 375 mg (also 3 doses).

With a clear violation of kidney function should reduce the dose by 25-50%. At the time of hemodialysis, the dose should be reduced by half, and taking velaxin (venlafaxine) should be at the end of the session.

If liver function is impaired, the dosage should be reduced by half and even (if required) more.

The drug should be withdrawn gradually. For example, if the course of treatment was 6 weeks, the cancellation period should last at least 2 weeks.

Side effects: The most frequent: dizziness, weakness, asthenia, insomnia, tremor, hypertension of muscles, increased excitability, increased blood pressure, vomiting, nausea, decreased appetite, decreased libido, disruption of accommodation.

Storage conditions: Dry, inaccessible to children place, room temperature (not above 25 C).
Terms of selling from pharmacies: Velaxin (Venlafaxine) is released on prescription.


Serzone - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

13 May 2019

Antidepressant: Serzone (Serzone)

Active ingredient: Trazodone (Nefazodone)Analogs: Nefadar

Nefazodone is an antidepressant, chemically similar to trazodone. It affects the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, increasing their free concentration in the brain.

Serzone - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

The drug is well suited for depression, accompanied by increased anxiety, as well as sleep disorders. Notable improvements in patients with such symptoms occur, as a rule, in the first week of nefazodone intake.

The drug has a high degree of safety, usually does not affect weight changes and does not provoke sexual dysfunction. Thus, it is perfectly suitable for long-term therapy.

Indications for use: Treatment of depression of varying severity, also complicated by sleep disorders and increased anxiety.

Contraindications: Do not use concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, until a period of two weeks passes. Also, the manufacturer of an antidepressant is recommended not to take the drug during pregnancy and lactation.

Dosage and administration: Nefazodone should be taken preorally, preferably twice a day, with or without food. As a rule, treatment is started with a minimum dose of 50 mg / day. Take for the night. Further, in the absence of daytime drowsiness and positive tolerability, you should gradually increase the dose to the recommended dose.

The recommended dose varies from 150 to 300 mg twice a day. The maximum dosage is thus 600 mg / day. Very often the dosage is slowly adjusted upwards in order to find the optimal amount of the drug. In this case, if side effects occur, you should wait for them to finish before moving on to a new dosage level. For elderly patients and impaired patients, a reduction in the initial dose, as well as a slower dose change, may be required, but the therapeutic dosage range is consistent with the range for younger patients.

Side effects: Nefazodone can cause the following side effects: nausea, dry mouth, weakness, drowsiness or insomnia, constipation, increased sweating. Most of these effects are observed with a dosage exceeding 300 mg / day.

Storage conditions: Keep away from excessive heat and moisture, out of reach of children and pet at room temperature (below 40 C).


Cipramil - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

06 May 2019

Antidepressant: Cipramil

Active ingredient: Citalopram (citalopram)


- Pram - Lannacher Heilmittel GmbH / Omega Pharma (Austria / Russia)
- Siozam - Veropharm
- Cipramil - Lundbek AS (Denmark)
- Zitalek - Zentiva a.s. (Czech Republic)
- Citalopram hydrobromide - Industriale Chimica S.r.L. (Italy)
- Citalanol - MASTERLEC JSC (Russia)
- Cytol - Abdi Ibrahim Ilac San. ve Tic. A.S. (Turkey)
- Celexa - Forest Laboratories, Inc. (U.S.A. and Canada)

Cipramil - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

Different drugs contain citalopram in different countries: Cipramil (Russia, Australia, Brazil, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, Ireland, Israel, Norway, Sweden, Great Britain, New Zealand, South Africa), Elopram (Italy), Citol, Vodelax (Turkey ), Citrol, Seropram, Talam (Europe and Australia), Citabax, Citaxin (Poland), Citalec (Slovakia, Czech Republic), Recital (Israel, manufactured by Thrima Inc. for Unipharm Ltd.), Zetalo (India), Celapram, Ciazil Austria, New Zealand), Zentius, Cimal (South America), Ciprapine (Ireland), Cilift (South Africa), Citox (Mexico), Temperax (Chile, Peru, Argentina), Talohexal, Citopam (Australia), Akarin (Denmark), Cipram (Turkey, Denmark, producer H. Lundbeck A / S), Dalsan (Eastern Europe), Pramcit (Pakistan), Celius (Greece), Humorup (Argentina), Oropram (Iceland, producer of Actavis).

Citalopram is an antidepressant included in the group of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). At the same time, citalopram practically does not bind to the majority of receptors and does not affect the work of enzymes. It does not have a noticeable effect on the cardiovascular system, it does not provoke weight gain, does not affect the appetite and does not interfere with the work of the kidneys and liver. Citalopram does not inhibit the cognitive function of a person, it does not have the effect of drowsiness. In addition, there was no negative effect of the drug on reproductive function. Citalopram is a fat-soluble compound, and therefore it is absorbed very quickly by the body and begins to act after a minimum time after administration. The antidepressant is not addictive. Compatible with many other drugs, including analgesics, antihistamines and antihypertensive drugs. An important advantage of the drug is its tolerability by most people of all ages. A distinct antidepressant effect occurs after 2-4 weeks of citalopram, starting to manifest itself at the end of the first week. The percentage of patients who experienced improvement as a result of the drug treatment (according to a variety of studies) is about 80 people out of a hundred. According to two Russian studies conducted in the years 98-99, citalopram has not only a proper antidepressant effect, but also a pronounced anti-anxiety, and it is virtually equally effective under conditions of any severity. In addition, with citalopram treatment, there is virtually no withdrawal syndrome.

Indications for use: Treatment and prevention of depression of any origin; treatment of panic disorders, both with fear of open space, and without it; treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Dosage and administration: Citalopram is taken orally once a day during a meal or on an empty stomach. It is recommended to start treatment with depressions at a dosage of 20 mg / day. Depending on the individual reaction of the patient's body, the dose can be increased to a maximum (60 mg / day).

In the treatment of panic disorders, the minimum recommended dose is 10 mg / day for the first week and 20 mg / day for the second and subsequent weeks of treatment. In addition, if necessary, it is possible to gradually increase the daily dose to 60 mg.

The recommended dosage for OCD is 20 mg of citalopram per day. The dose can be gradually increased by 20 mg / day until an adequate therapeutic effect is obtained. The maximum daily dose is 60 mg.

For elderly patients (from 65 years old) the maximum dose of citalopram is 40 mg / day. Patients with impaired liver function should limit the intake of the drug to 30 mg per day. If there are abnormalities in the work of the kidneys, citalopram is allowed without any restrictions. However, this applies only to minor and moderate violations. There is no information on the effects of citalopram in severe renal failure.

Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, in particular, to citalopram itself, pregnancy and lactation. In addition, simultaneous treatment with citalopram and MAO inhibitors is prohibited (at least 2 weeks, or a week after completion of citalopram treatment) after the completion of the course of taking MAO inhibitors. Caitralopram should be taken with caution in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function.

Side effects: The drug is not likely to cause side effects. There are very few: fatigue, drowsiness or, on the contrary, insomnia, anxiety, mood swings, euphoria, dry mouth, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, heart rhythm disturbance, taste disturbance. There is a possibility of allergic reactions, such as a skin rash or itching.

Storage conditions: Store the drug as far from children's eyes as possible at a temperature of no higher than 25 C.

Terms of selling from the pharmacy: Without a prescription.


Prozac - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

26 Apr 2019

Antidepressant: Prozac (Prozac)

Active ingredient: fluoxetine (Fluoxetine)

Analogs: Apo-Fluoxetine, Bioxetine, Deprex, Deprenone, Portal, Prodep, Profluzak, Floxet, Fluval, Fluxonil, Flunat, Flunisan, Fluoxetine, Fluoxetine Hexal, Fluoxetine Lannacher, Fluoxetine Nycomed, Fluoxetine-Acry, Fluoxetine-Canon, Floodac, Framex, Fluoxetine - ALSI Pharma (Russia), Prodep, Profluzak - Akrihin (Russia), Fluval - KRKA (Slovenia).

Over the past few years, Prozac has become the third on the list of frequently prescribed antidepressants. Millions of people around the world use fluoxetine to alleviate the symptoms of a variety of disorders, such as depression, bulimia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, panic disorder, anxiety, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (symptoms appear a week or two before menstruation and are expressed irritability, nervous tension and sharp mood swings) in the people this is usually called "before the menstrual flow" (PMS).

Prozac - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

Perhaps you have heard about SSRI antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Prozac is one of the most popular antidepressants of this class. Since its release, Prozac has become increasingly popular due to its effectiveness in the treatment of depression. A large number of people around the world chose this antidepressant and found its help in combating depression extremely effective.

Prozac has proved very effective in numerous studies on the treatment of depression and anxiety. One study of this kind found that about 60% of patients felt less anxious and were able to continue their normal life in the usual way. As you can see, the drug "Prozac" is very effective in combating depression and similar disorders.

Interaction with other drugs: In some cases, Prozac is used concomitantly with other medications, such as Ziprexa (Olanzapine), for the treatment of depression, which is the result of manic depression or bipolar disorder. This combination is also used to treat depressive conditions in the event that at least two other drugs have not shown a good result in the fight against the disorder.

Thus, the antidepressant "Prozac" will help to save you from emotional overload, a lot of obsessive thoughts, and will allow you to look at life in a more balanced and adequate manner.

How Prozac works: The effect of using Prozac can be described as follows: the patient suddenly gets a really strong motivation to overcome depression and successfully achieves this. Prozac will help you significantly improve your mood. Of course, you will not lose the ability to experience sadness, but you will have an alternative way of feeling. In any case, if you are really depressed, there is no reason not to combine the use of Prozac with colloquial therapy.
The reason for taking this antidepressant is only one: it really works.


Adaptol - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

24 Apr 2019

Adaptol - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

Antidepressant: Adaptol
Active ingredient: Tetramethyltetraazabicyclooctanedione (tetramethyltetraazabicyclooctanedione)

Analogs: Afobazol, Mebicar

"Adaptol" refers to preparations of anxiolytic action. He normalizes the mood, eliminates anxiety, fears, anxiety, irritability, relieves internal tension. In addition to this, "Adaptol" gives a good anticonvulsant effect and can be used to relieve muscle cramps. In this case, the soothing effect is not accompanied by a disruption in coordination or excessive relaxation of the muscles of the body. In addition, the drug does not reduce either the physical or mental activity of a person, which allows you to take "Adaptol" during intensive work and study. Taking this drug can not be afraid of the appearance of a state of euphoria or overexcitation.

Adaptol - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

The undoubted advantages of "Adaptol" include its ability to relieve (or alleviate) nicotine abstinence. In addition, the drug does not have hypnotic effects, but it can enhance the effect of hypnotic drugs.

Clinical trials on the effects of "Adaptol" on the human body, suggest that it increases the speed, logic and clarity of thinking, positively affects mental performance, improves attention. In this case, the drug does not stimulate pathological emotional activity or the appearance of delusional conditions.

The tests did not reveal any oncological activity of the drug, nor the ability to induce mutations or toxic poisonings.

Indications for use:

- Neuroses and similar conditions, also complicated by irritability, fear, anxiety and emotional instability;
- Cardialgia (not related to ischemic heart disease);
- In order to improve the tolerability of tranquilizers and neuroleptics (elimination of neurological and somatovegetative side effects);
- Oxidative stresses of the most diverse etiology (as a cerebroprotector and adaptogen);
- Stabilization of the condition in premenstrual syndrome and menopause;
- Nicotine addiction. As a component of complex therapy (used as a means of reducing cravings for nicotine).

Contraindications: "Adaptol" should not be taken to people with increased sensitivity to the drug or its individual constituents. It is also not recommended to use the drug during pregnancy (especially in the first three months) and in childhood (up to 10 years).

Dosage and administration: "Adaptol" is taken internally. There is no dependence on food intake. The daily dosage is 500 mg 2-3 times. The single maximum dose is 3 grams, the maximum daily dose is 10 g. The course of treatment lasts from several days to 2-3 months.

Children older than 10 years are usually prescribed 300-500 mg 3 times a day.

With complex therapy of nicotine dependence, the daily dose, as a rule, is 600-900 mg three times a day. The course lasts 5-6 weeks.

Side effects: As a rule, arise with the use of the drug in high doses. In general, the side effects of taking "Adaptol" are quite rare. Possible: allergic reactions, lowering body temperature and blood pressure, weakness and dizziness.

Storage: Dry, inaccessible place for children. The temperature should not exceed 15-25 C.


Cipralex - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

19 Apr 2019

Antidepressant: Cipralex

Active ingredient: Escitalopramum (escitalopram)

Analogs: Selectra, Lexapro (lexapro), Lexam, Lexamil, Seroplex.

Escitalopram belongs to the group of antidepressants-SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Inhibiting the reverse capture of this neurotransmitter by neurons of the brain, the drug increases its free concentration in the presynaptic gap (the gap between the neurons). This, in turn, has a pronounced antidepressant effect. Escitalopram either does not, or has a very weak possibility of interfering with the work of most receptors.

Cipralex - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

In one of the American studies conducted in 2006, it was found that significant improvements occur in 75% of patients with depression, already at the 8th week of taking the drug.

Scientists from the University of Goteborg in Sweden investigated the efficacy of escitalopram in PMS. Close attention was paid to the main symptoms of PMS: excitability, irritability, tension and a sense of depression. As a result, at a dosage of 10 mg / day, improvement occurred in 86% of women, and in 94% at a dosage of 20 mg / day.

In addition, it was found that escitalopram has a positive effect with pain symptoms of depression (subjects felt headaches, pain in the neck, chest, and in the abdomen at the time of treatment). Improvement was achieved already in the first week of taking the drug, and a pronounced effect occurred after 14 days of treatment.

Indications for use: Treatment of depressive episodes (any weight); Treatment of patients with panic disorders (including agoraphobia).

Contraindications: Escitalopram should not be taken to children under 15 years of age, pregnant women (including lactation), as well as people with hypersensitivity to the components of the drug. In addition, the administration of escitalopram simultaneously with MAO inhibitors is prohibited.

Dosage and administration: Escitalopram is taken once a day, both during meals and independently.
In the treatment of depressive episodes, the therapeutic dose is 10, the maximum is 20 mg / day. As a rule, the antidepressant effect begins to manifest itself after 2-4 weeks of taking the drug. If the desired effect is achieved and the symptoms of depression are completely gone, you should take the drug for at least six months to fix the result.

The course of treatment for panic disorders should begin with a dosage of 5 mg / day, followed by an increase to 10 mg / day. If there is a special need, the daily dose can be increased to 20 mg. The therapy lasts several months, and its maximum effect is achieved on average after 3 months of use of escitalopram.

For elderly patients (aged 65 years), the dosage (both recommended and maximum) is half that of the above. With mild / moderate renal failure, a dose reduction is not performed. If the patient has severe renal dysfunction, then escitalopram should be treated with caution.

For patients with impaired liver function, the minimum dose for the first 14 days of treatment is 5 mg / day. Dosage, if necessary, can be increased to 10 mg / day.

Patients with a weak activity of the isoenzyme P4502C19 in the first 2 weeks of treatment should take the drug in an amount of not more than 5 mg / day. Depending on the personal reaction to the drug, the dosage can be increased 2 times.

To avoid withdrawal syndrome, escitalopram should be gradually phased out, reducing the dose within 2 weeks.

Side effects: As a rule, occur in the first 2 weeks of taking the drug and eventually go to naught. Among the most common side effects are the following: nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, constipation, drowsiness (possible insomnia), increased sweating, weakness and dizziness, decreased sexual desire.

Storage conditions: Storage temperature should not exceed 25 C, do not let the drug enter the children's hands.

Terms of selling from the pharmacy: Without a prescription.


Seroquel - instructions, dosage, side effects

15 Apr 2019

Antidepressant: Seroquel (Seroquele)

Manufacturer: ASTRAZENEKA
Active ingredient: Quetiapine

"Seroquel" refers to neuroleptics, that is, substances that have antipsychotic effects. The drug is effective in treating both positive and negative manifestations of schizophrenia. Also, speaking of the treatment of schizophrenia, the drug causes a significantly lower number of adverse reactions, compared with older medications. Serious clinical studies show that the drug demonstrates high efficiency in a wide range of dosages, which allows you to select the dose for each patient individually.

Seroquel buy

In one of the domestic short-term (duration of 6 weeks) clinical trials of the effectiveness of the drug "Seroquel", conducted in a psychiatric hospital in Moscow, specific statistical data were obtained. So, positive changes in symptoms were noted in 60% of patients with schizophrenia. It was also found that the most significant improvements occurred by the end of the 4th week of therapy.

In the same study, all the side effects that appeared as a result of taking the drug were recorded. Patients did not experience any adverse reactions of strong or even moderate severity. In addition, all the data of the reaction (dry mouth, drowsiness, etc.) disappeared in the first week of therapy.

With an increase in the duration of administration of the drug to 6 months, additional improvement in the condition of patients was recorded. No side effects were observed. In addition, "Seroquel" is a safe and effective substitute for other antipsychotics, which is also proved by medical practice.

Indications for use: "Seroquel" is prescribed for chronic or acute psychosis. The drug is successfully used for schizophrenia, as well as for manic episodes in the background of bipolar disorders.

Contraindications: We should abandon the "Seroquel" with increased sensitivity to the drug, as well as with epilepsy and its manifestations (seizures) in the anamnesis. It is forbidden to take "Seroquel" to pregnant women (this applies to the period of lactation) and people suffering from arterial hypotension.

Method of application and dosage: "Seroquel" is taken internally. However, its use does not depend on nutrition. The daily dose should be divided into two doses. During the first four days, the following dosage is recommended: dose for the first day - 50 mg, for the second - 100 mg, for the third - 200 mg, for the fourth - 300 mg. Then it is necessary to raise the dosage a little more efficiently (usually from 300 or 450 mg per day). The maximum daily dose is 750 mg / day.

Elderly patients, as well as people with renal or hepatic insufficiency, should be given an initial dose of 25 mg per day, then increase daily by 25-50 mg until the effective dosage volume is reached.

Side effects: The most frequent reactions of the body: drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, dry mouth, orthostatic hypotension, changes in the level of liver enzymes.

Storage conditions: "Seroquel" should be stored for no more than 3 years at a temperature regime not exceeding 30 C.

Terms of selling from pharmacies: Seroquel (quetiapine) is dispensed without a prescription.


Melipramin - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

10 Apr 2019

Antidepressant: Melipramin

Active ingredient: Imipramine (imipramine)Analogs: Venlaksor, Mirtazapin Sandoz, Simbalga, Velaxin, Prefaxin, Remeron, Mirzaten, Esprital 45, Melitor, Deprim Forte, and others.

Melipramin - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

Melipramine (imipramine) belongs to the so-called tricyclic antidepressants. The mechanism of its action is based on the inhibition of reuptake of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine in the brain. Long-term use of melipramine (imipramine) has a beneficial effect on adrenergic and serotonergic transmission, and also promotes the restoration of appropriate systems whose function was impaired during depression. Has a distinctive stimulating effect, brings a feeling of vivacity, relieves the feeling of anguish. Improves mood, removes motor retardation, normalizes sleep, helps to get rid of feelings of anxiety, increases both mental and general tone of the body. Gives a positive effect with bulimia. Helps in overcoming depressions of varying severity and etiology. The effect of the drug increases gradually. As a rule, marked improvement occurs after 1-3 weeks of treatment, a maximum - in a month.

Indications for use:

- treatment of various depressions, varying degrees of severity and etiology: asthenodepressive syndrome accompanied by motor retardation, endogenous (manic-depressive psychosis in the stage of depression), involuntary, reactive, alcoholic, climacteric depressions, as well as depressive states accompanying neuroses and psychopathy;
- treatment of panic disorder (i / m administration);
- treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders (IM introduction);
- prevention of migraines and headaches;
- treatment of chronic pain syndrome: pain in cancer patients, atypical facial pain, post-traumatic - neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and other peripheral neuropathies;
- treatment of bulimia nervosa;
- bedwetting (in children only from the age of 6 years).

Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to the components of the drug or tricyclic antidepressants in general, the state of acute alcohol poisoning, poisoning with any psychotropic drugs, simultaneous reception of drugs-inhibitors MAO (it is necessary to sustain a pause, at least 2 weeks). In addition, imipramine should not be taken in case of serious liver / kidney disease / insufficiency, cardiovascular diseases, disorders in the genitourinary system (such as atony of the bladder and prostate adenoma). It is not recommended to take the drug with closed angle glaucoma, conditions characterized by an increased risk of seizures, as well as during pregnancy or lactation. It is forbidden to administer a solution of melipramine (imipramine) to people suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hyperthyroidism, and diabetes mellitus during decompensation.

Dosage and administration: In order to reduce the irritating effect of melipramine (imipramine) on the gastric mucosa, the drug should be taken after a meal.

Dosage is selected individually. Treatment should begin with taking a minimal amount of antidepressant followed by an increase until the desired effect is achieved.

For adults, the minimum daily dose is 25-75 mg. This amount of melipramine can be taken as a whole, or breaking into 2-3 doses. If necessary, it is possible to gradually increase the dosage (every day by 25 mg) to 150-250 mg / day. If the effect does not occur, then, in the absence of serious side effects, the daily dosage may increase to the maximum 300 mg. With mild forms of depression, a 4-6-week course of treatment is sufficient. At the end of the course, the dosage should be gradually reduced (by 25 mg every 24 hours) to the maintenance dose (25-100 mg / day). It should be remembered that too early withdrawal of the drug in most cases leads to the resumption of depression.

In the stationary treatment of severe forms of depression, the drug begins to take in the form of intramuscular injections. The required amount of the drug is 25 mg / day. With each following day, the dosage should be uniformly increased. The dose is adjusted to 100 mg / day by the 6th day of treatment (the maximum dosage is 200 mg / day), and, starting from the seventh day, the injections are gradually replaced by a preoral method of drug use. From the 13th day onward, this transition must be fully completed. In case of aggravation of the patient's condition, it is necessary to return to injections. As a rule, the full course of treatment of severe forms of depression lasts from 3 to 6 months. To treat elderly patients and children, lower doses of antidepressant are recommended.

Children should take imipramine inside after eating. The initial dosage is 10 mg per day. Within the next ten days, the dose is increased depending on the age of the patient. For children 6-7 years, this amount is 20 mg / day, 8-14 - 20-50 mg / day, and for children over 14 years - 50 mg / day or more. The maintenance dose for children is half that of an adult.

In the treatment of enuresis at the age of 6-7 years with a weight of 20-25 kg, a dosage of 25 mg / day, 9-12 years with a mass of 25-35 kg is 25-50 mg / day, for children over 12 years, a 50- 75 mg / day. It must be remembered that the dosage should be prescribed at a rate of 2.5 mg per 1 kg of body weight of the child. If a child urinates in bed in the evening, it makes sense to divide the dose of melipramine (imipramine) at daytime (16-18 hours) and evening (20-21 hours) receptions. Excessive dose increase does not give effective results. The course of treatment for enuresis lasts no more than 3 months, with the observation of improvement it is necessary to gradually stop taking the drug.

Elderly patients are advised to start taking melipramine (imipramine) with 10 mg per day, which can be increased to 30-75 mg / day. The maintenance dose for patients of this age group is half the dose for adults.

Side effects: Among the most common side effects are: drowsiness, tinnitus, weakness, headache, dizziness, agitation, impaired concentration, yawning, insomnia, accommodation, dry mouth, constipation, tachycardia, arrhythmia, enlargement of the mammary glands , both decrease and increase of sexual desire, itching, rash, decreased sweating, increased intraocular pressure.

Storage conditions: Store at room temperature not more than 25 C, in a dry, darkened, inaccessible place for children.

Conditions for selling from pharmacies: Melipramine (imipramine) is dispensed on prescription.

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