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Conservative treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities

06 Dec 2018

According to the results of epidemiological studies, in Europe the pathology of veins occurs in 25-50% of the population, with 10-15% having significant varicose veins, 5-15% having severe varicose veins, 1-4% of people aged 30- For 70 years, venous ulcers of the lower extremities have been observed. On the average, varicose veins occur in 25-30% of women and 10-20% of men. The incidence increases with age - about 70% of 70-year-old men and women suffer from varicose veins.

Actovegin treatment of varicose veins

All patients suffering from varicose veins of the lower extremities should be observed by the doctor and receive proper treatment. Indications for surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs are pathological discharge of blood from the deep veins into the superficial, the progression of symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and the appearance of complications (bleeding, thrombophlebitis).

Tasks and methods of conservative therapy
Conservative therapy is necessary for correcting the symptoms of the disease, preventing and treating complications, as preoperative preparation and postoperative rehabilitation, and for improving the quality of life. Taking into account modern views on the pathogenesis of VBVNK, the main efforts in the treatment should be aimed at eliminating the following pathological factors:

- increasing the capacity of the venous bed;
- pathological reflux in various parts of the venous bed;
- leukocyte aggression and inflammation;
- microcirculatory disorders;
- lymphatic drainage disorders.

This is achieved by various methods of treatment. Among the main methods are the correction of lifestyle, compression and pharmacotherapy. They also use physiotherapy and prescribe a sanatorium-and-spa treatment.

Medications for treatment
The main group of drugs used to treat varicose veins of the lower extremities are phlebotrophic drugs.

It is also advisable to use deproteinized blood derivatives of calves. This group of drugs improves the course of energy-dependent metabolic processes in the body; stimulates the supply of tissues with oxygen and glucose; increases the activity of enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation; accelerates the exchange of ATP and ADP with the decomposition of lactates and pyruvates; normalizes the pH of cells; improves microcirculation. Actovegin and Solcoseryl are used in the form of a solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection.

Systemic enzyme therapy is widely used in the treatment of various diseases in the pathogenesis of which there is an inflammatory or immune component. Therefore, their use is useful in varicose veins of the lower extremities, complicated by thrombophlebitis or trophic ulcer.

Phlebotrophic preparations

Modern pharmacotherapy includes a large number of phlebotrophic drugs, which can be divided into several groups.

Chemical substance - Active component (Trade name)

alpha - benzopyrones coumarins (none)
gamma - benzopyrones (flavonoids) diosmin, hesperidin, flavanoic acid (Detralex, Cyclo 3 Fort)
Routine derivatives rutosides and hydroxyrutosides (Anvenol, Venoruton, Routin, Troxerutin, Troxevasin)
pycnogenol leucocyanidol, procyanide, oligomer (Endotelon)
saponins escin, Ruscosides (Anvenol, Aescin, Reparil, Escuzan)
ergot derivatives dihydroergotamine, dihydroergocristine, dihydroergocryptin (Vazobral)
synthetic substances ribenozide, heptaminol, calcium dobelyzate (Glivenol, Ginkor fort, Doxium)

It is recommended to prescribe phlebotrophic drugs for a period of at least 3 months. The indication for the prolongation of reception is the rapid recurrence of symptoms of CVI after discontinuation of treatment. Do not prescribe several drugs at the same time.

Detralex has a phleboprotective, lymphotonic and anti-inflammatory effect, improves microcirculation. Detralex appoint 1 tablet 2 times a day. After 2 weeks, once taken 2 tablets. Applied in monotherapy. A combination with local dosage forms is beneficial.

Cyclos 3 Fort has a phlebotonic effect, reduces permeability and increases the resistance of capillaries. The daily dose of the drug is 3 capsules after meals.

Anvenol has a decongestant, venotonic effect. Dihydroergocristine in its composition expands arterioles, increasing simultaneously the tone of the veins due to the effect on smooth muscles, routines and esculin reduce the permeability and fragility of capillaries. The drug is prescribed 2 tablets 3 times a day for a week, and then 1 tablet 3 times a day. When using a liquid form, the drug is prescribed 20-25 drops 4 times a day. It is advisable to prescribe pentoxifylline derivatives.

Venoruton, Troxevasin (troxerutin) is a derivative routine, a universal protector of the venous wall. Reduces the permeability of the vessel, primarily on the microcirculatory level, has an anti-inflammatory effect, reduces aggregation and increases the deformability of erythrocytes. The daily dose of 1000-1200 mg after or during a meal. It is advisable to use in combination with pentoxifylline derivatives.

Endotelon (purified grape seed extract with standard content of procyanidol oligomers) has a protective effect against the vascular endothelium, has a venotonic effect, blocks the enzymatic degradation of collagen and elastin, increases peripheral capillary stability in individuals with increased fragility of blood vessels, and reduces permeability of capillaries. Assign 1 tablet 2 times a day.

Aescin, Escuzan, Reparil (escin) - triterpensaponin extract of horse chestnut seeds. It has a pronounced capillaroprotective activity, has anti-exudative and anti-inflammatory effect, reduces permeability of capillaries, reduces swelling of tissues, raises the tone of venous vessels, improves hemorheology. Apply 15-20 drops (1 tablet) 4 times a day. In combination with Ascorutinum (1 tablet 4 times a day), the therapeutic effect is potentiated.

Vazobral reduces aggregation of platelets and erythrocytes, increases peripheral venous tone, reduces vascular permeability. Assign 2-4 ml (diluted with a small amount of water) 2 times a day during meals.

Glivenol has a capillaroprotective effect, improves microcirculation, increases the tone of veins, has anti-inflammatory activity, being an antagonist of bradykinin, histamine, has an antiallergic effect. It is advisable to use in CVI in the stage of trophic disorders. The therapeutic dose is 800 mg per day.

Ginkor fort has an angioprotective effect, increases venous tone, reduces vascular permeability, increases venous return to the heart, inhibits the action of histamine, serotonin and bradykinin. Assign 1 capsule 2 times a day after meals. In severe forms of CVI, a 2-week course of 2 capsules 2 times a day is recommended, followed by a transition to a standard dosage. The drug should not be used in hyperthyroidism and simultaneously with MAO inhibitors.

Doxium (dobezilate calcium) normalizes vascular permeability, increases the resistance of capillaries, improves microcirculation, reduces platelet aggregation, reduces blood viscosity, reduces edematous and hemorrhagic syndromes. Assign 250 mg 4 times a day or 500 mg 1-2 times a day during meals for 2-3 weeks, then reduce the dose to 250-500 mg per day.

Pilex (extracts of various plants) increases the tone of venous vessels, reduces edematous syndrome, reduces the permeability of the venous wall. The initial course is 2-3 tablets 3 times a day after meals for a week, then 2 tablets 2 times a day.

Topical preparations
In the complex therapy of varicose veins of the lower extremities, it is also possible to apply topical drugs. On the one hand, their cost is relatively low, on the other hand - convenience and ease of use make them attractive for most patients. Meanwhile, it is necessary to clearly represent that the clinical effect is achieved through a distraction. This group should be administered with caution to patients with trophic skin disorders.

Depending on the main active substance, all ointments and gels can be divided into several groups:

- heparin-containing gels and ointments (heparin ointment, Essaven gel, Lyoton 1000 gel, etc.)
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory gels (Diclofenac gel, Fastum gel, etc.)
- ointments containing corticosteroids (Celestoderm, Flucin, Fluorocort, etc.)
- ointments with phlebotonic effect (Venoruton gel, Ginkor gel, Cyclo 3 cream, etc.)

The question of the necessity of pharmacoprophylaxis should be considered in patients at risk: weighed heredity, obesity, pregnancy, sedentary lifestyle, hormonal therapy. It is clear that with the help of medicines one can not change the way of life and reduce the influence of hereditary factors. However, their use should neutralize some of the endogenous disorders and side effects of a number of drugs. In general, we are talking about hormonal therapy in women. Patients in this group with a prophylactic goal usually recommend elastic compression, lifestyle changes. In some cases, there is a need to prescribe phlebotrophic drugs.


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Drugs and their effects on the body

04 Dec 2018

Marijuana. The most common names are: cannabis, cannabis, hashish, marijuana, anasha, plan, duckling, shamal, silly, plasticine, shawl, pot, reefer, hemp, sinsemilla, ganga, bhang, herb, weed, boom, Mary Jane, gangster, chronic etc.

Hemp. (Cannabis sativa, that is, hemp seeding, also called "Indian") - a cultivated plant that has many uses. From it, they receive fiber for hemp ropes and make a cloth similar to flaxen. Its stems go for the production of glossy paper and building cement fibreboards. Its seeds can be used to feed the poultry. Hemp seed oil was offered as a piston instead of diesel.
They even make medicine from her. However, the greatest record of hemp has been received as raw material for the manufacture of drugs.

Drugs and their effects on the body. MDMA

Marijuana is usually smoked by rolling into a cigarette (jamb), but it can be smoked and like tobacco in smoking cribs. Rarely, it is mixed with food or brewed like tea.

Immediate Side Effects:
- panic
- anxiety
- poor coordination of movements
- slow reaction time
- after the initial "take-off", a drug user experiences drowsiness and depression
- heart rate acceleration and the risk of heart attack
- distortion of perceptions

Long-term side effects:
- weakened resistance of the organism to common illnesses (colds, bronchitis)
- suppression of the immune system
- growth disorders
- an increase in the body of cells with an abnormal structure
- decrease in the content of male sex hormones
- rapid destruction of lung fibers and irreversible pathology of brain tissue
- reducing sexual potency
- difficulties in learning: reducing the ability to receive and assimilate information
- apathy, drowsiness, lack of motivation
- the inability to clearly understand the environment.

External changes - the pupils are slightly enlarged; shine in the eyes; redness of the eye proteins; slightly swollen eyelids; constant licking of lips; bad breath; a specific smell of burning from clothing; excessive gaiety and laugh without reason; weakening of attention; memory impairment; the excessive need for communication with time changes to the desire for solitude for music (for hours); incomprehensible expression; confusing language, lack of logic in expressions; jumping from topic to topic; in the conversation, paying a lot of attention to minor things; slight violation of coordination of movements; sometimes hallucinations; in case of a sudden change in the situation - fear and paranoid phenomena; an increase in appetite ("covetousness"), a general euphoria and a state of affection. Physiological changes - accelerated pulse; dry mouth and lips.

Heroin. In its pure form, heroin is an absolutely white powder. But most often it has a pinkish gray, brown or black color. Its color depends on the impurities, which it is diluted. These include sugar, caffeine and other substances. Street heroin is sometimes "diluted" with strychnine and other poisonous impurities. These impurities are not completely soluble and, when they enter the body, they can kill the blood vessels that lead to the lungs, kidneys and the brain.
Other, street, names of heroin: white, garryk, hero, gerasim, slow, pepper, éich, medicine, horse, junk, hercules.

Drugs and their effects on the body. Rittalin

Addicts administer heroin by injection, smoking or breathing it through the nose. During the first intake, this drug creates a strong euphoria. A person begins to behave freely, easily communicating with others, and it can increase sexual activity. But all this for a short while.

Heroin causes a strong disease, and the breakage of it is extremely painful. This drug quickly disrupts the immune system, inevitably leads a person to a painful, exhausted state and, eventually, to death.

Immediate Side Effects:
- trouble
- difficult breathing
- blurring of mental abilities
- nausea and vomiting

Long-term side effects:
- tooth decay
- gingivitis
- constipation
- cold sweat
- itching
- weakening of the immune system
- coma
- respiratory diseases
- paralysis
- reduced sexual activity and prolonged impotence in men
- menstrual disorders in women
- inability to achieve orgasm (in men and women)
- loss of memory and intellectual abilities
- depression
- acne on the face
- loss of appetite
- insomnia
- closure

External changes - strong narrowing of the pupils; eyes slightly reddened and strongly shining, bruises under eyes; superficial intermittent slow breathing; skin itching (especially nose); sleepy look; intricate language; passivity and general relaxation; apathy to everyone except himself; euphoria; excessive "courage"; nervousness and so on.

Physiological changes - dryness of the skin and mucous membranes (lips, tongue); superficial sleep; reduction of urine output; frequent constipation; with a cold there is no cough; slight decrease in body temperature.

LSD. This is the strongest substance that changes consciousness. It is made of lysergic acid, which is formed in a horn of mold of cereals. Known as "acid" and many others, LSD is sold in streets in small pills and capsules or in the form of jelly. Sometimes it absorbs absorbed paper with various small pictures, which is then cut into small pieces. Sometimes LSD is sold in liquid form. But in whatever form it does not fall into the body of LSD, the result is always one and the same - a gap in connection with reality.

Other names of LSD: Acid, Lucy, acid, twins, cat, cartoons, fry, superman, white lightning, wizard, green dragon, stamp, trip, blizzard and many others.

Physical effects:
- enlarged pupils
- reduced or elevated body temperature
- sweating or "ants"
- loss of appetite
- insomnia
- dry mouth
- trembling

Intellectual effects:
- delirium
- visual hallucinations
- a false sense of euphoria and confidence
- disturbing the feeling of sleep and feeling of reality
- a sense of approaching death
- fear of losing control over oneself
- frightening thoughts and feelings
- distorted sense of time, disturbance of perception of forms and sizes of objects, movement, color, sounds, bodily sensations
- return of LPS transpiration after some time after admission
- severe depression and psychosis
- panic attacks
- chromosomal disorders
- the birth of children with various diseases
- initiate acts of violence
- suicide

The man who took LSD will have dim eyes and an empty, empty look. Often, this person looks dreary, and she needs to repeat the question several times, so she responds.

In it you can observe a strong interest in ordinary things. For example, for a long time, she will look at the teapot or ashtray, turning her, looking at different angles. It may also be of similar interest to different parts of the body, for example, to the fingers, palms, or feet. Her conversation will be inherent in mystery, a "journey of consciousness." It will also have hallucinations. She will feel anxiety for no apparent reason.

Alcohol. The main component of all alcoholic beverages is ethyl alcohol or wine alcohol (ethanol). It belongs to substances that cause addiction and painful passion (alcoholism), which appears in the need for opiation to achieve euphoria, the removal of physical and mental tension, the habit of the organism to alcohol with a gradual increase in the amount of alcohol used, the formation of abstinent (hangover) syndrome (hangover can be treated by medicines Phenotropil).
In the human body, ethanol is well absorbed and distributed almost equally across all tissues and liquids.

Drugs and their effects on the body. Alcohol

Women are more vulnerable to the negative effects of alcohol, since ethanol is oxidized in the liver and as a result of oxidation toxic compounds (acetaldehyde) are produced, but under the action of special enzymes that play an important role in the metabolism, it turns into the final product of CO2 decomposition (carbon dioxide) and O2 (oxygen). In the female body, there is almost no such protection. This explains the more severe occurrence of alcoholism in women.
In excessive use, about 10% of alcohol is not oxidized and is excreted unchanged by the kidneys and lungs, damaging them.

Influence of alcohol:
- acute and chronic mental disorders
- impression of organs of the gastrointestinal tract: gastritis, ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, colitis, dysbiosis, alcoholic hepatitis
- disruption of the cardiovascular system
- destruction of the liver (can be treated by Heptral)
- neuromuscular arousal, development of a court
- pathology of the respiratory system: chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, dryness
- changes in the cerebral cortex, destruction of neurons (nerve cells).

Ecstasy. From the very beginning, "ecstasy" is the slogan of 3,4 methylenedioxy-methamine (MDMA). This synthetic compound, in its pure form, is commonly found in the form of white crystals of hydrochloric acid.

In the broadest sense, ecstasy - any drug based on amphetamines, sold in tablets and is intended for oral administration in a specific setting disco. In practice, ecstasy tablets may include (MDMA), other substances of a number of amphetamines, caffeine and many others, both psychotropic and neutral (fillers, dyes, impurities). As a rule, neither the seller nor the buyer knows what substances are in a pill and are guessing about the effect of the dasg.

Production, transportation and distribution of ecstasy are a criminal offense in most countries of the world, including Ukraine.
Physical effects from the usual doses of ecstasy are weak and varied - rarely mention dryness in the mouth, gargle with teeth, eye irritation, sweating, and sometimes a feeling of deep physical relaxation. High doses (overdose) of ecstasy cause more unambiguous effects, similar to the effects of amphetamines - rapid and increased palpitations, sweating, dizziness, anxiety, and the like.

The consequences of taking this drug are as follows:

- psychological difficulties, agitated condition, depression, typical paranoid signs during and after some time after admission
- sleep disturbance
- Breaking brain neurons that produce serotonin substances that regulate aggression, mood, sexual activity, sleep and pain
- destruction of the liver
- an immediate increase in the risk of Parkinson's disease, which manifests itself in impaired motor functions, impaired coordination of movements, paralysis, as a result of the destruction of individual neurons in the human body.

Crack. The word "cocaine" is called a drug both in powder form and in crystalline form (crack). If cocaine is usually taken by inhalation in the nose, then the crack is warmed up and smoked. Creek has got its name due to the specific cracking or clicking sound that is formed when it is cooled.

Creek is not only a formidable form of cocaine, but also the most dangerous for human life. Since cracking is cleared by 75-100%, it is a much stronger drug than regular cocaine. It extends in the form of solid tiles or crystals from yellow to pale pink or white.

If you smoke any substance, it reaches the brain much faster than with any other method of administration. Therefore, smoking cracking leads to an intense, immediate but very fast pacifist, which lasts about 15 minutes. Because of this addiction to cracking occurs much faster than cocaine, almost from the first reception.
Here's how it's called: speed-bol, cheap snow, frost, plague.

Physiological and spiritual effects of cracking:

- loss of appetite
- accelerated heartbeat, increased blood pressure, increased body temperature
- narrowing the vessels
- accelerated heartbeat
- enlarged pupils
- restless sleep
- nausea
- Hyperstimulation
- strange, eccentric behavior, predisposition to violence
- hallucinations, increased excitability, irritability
- touching hallucinations, which create the illusion of bugs crawling under the skin
- strong euphoria
- anxiety and paranoia
- depression
- impression of the liver, kidneys and lungs
- severe tooth decay
- auditory hallucinations
- sexual disturbance
- psychosis
- disorientation, apathy, confusion and much more.

A person will be inclined to a quick and disorderly movement or may be inconsistent in conversation, jump from one topic to another.
He or she will also feel dry mouth and can drink an unusual amount of water to quench thirst, and continuously lick the lips.
He can also constantly scratch his nose, despite the lack of colds or allergies.

Pervitin and methamphetamine. Methamphetamine or MET is a white crystalline drug. It is used by injection, inhaled (inhalation through the nose) or smoked. It can also be taken orally, but any method develops an equally strong dependence. It contributes to the false sense of happiness caused by the drug, the surge of confidence, hyperactivity and energy. They usually last from 6 to 8 hours, but can last up to 24 hours. You get pleasure from the first time, but from the first time life begins to collapse. Pervitin is a national name for methamphetamine. Usually it is available in powder form. It has no odor, bitter taste, easily dissolves in water and alcohol. There are pinks of brown, gray-yellow, orange or even pink. It is also made in pills.
The most common street names are methamphetamine and amphetamine: screw, chalk, phenamine, ice, ice, hair dryer, amphitheater, speed, swaddle, mephan, black beauty, alarm clock, chef, synthetics, rubber, ephedron, bolt, crystal.

Immediate side effects of Pervitin:
- loss of appetite, nausea
- accelerated heartbeat, increased blood pressure and temperature
- pupil dilation
- restless sleep
- unnatural, strange behavior, sometimes predisposition to violence
- hallucinations, severe excitability, irritability
- panic and psychosis
- overdose can cause convulsions, seizures to death

Long-term side effects of peritoneum:

- irreversible damage to the blood vessels in the heart and brain, high blood pressure
- damage to the liver, kidneys and lungs
- destruction of tissues in the nose, if the drug inhales
- difficulty breathing if the drug smokes
- infection and suppuration if the drug is injected intravenously
- exhaustion, weight loss
- tooth decay
- disorientation, apathy, devastation
- strong psychological dependence
- psychosis
- depression
- brain damage similar to Alzheimer's, shock and epilepsy.

"Children's cocaine" - ritalin. Ritalin is the common name of methylphenidate. He is ranked in the US Department of Drug Administration as a second group drug with cocaine, morphine and amphetamines. The US Drug Control Office issued a series of recommendations that ritalin and its derivatives may cause hallucinations, suicidal thoughts, psychotic behavior, as well as aggression and violence against others.

Ritalin is released in small pills similar in form and size to aspirin. The word "Cuba" is the name of the manufacturer on the tablets. Pills of 5 mg - pale yellow, 10 mg tablets are pale green, and tablets of 20 mg are white and light yellow. It is believed that this drug is a stimulant of the central nervous system. However, even the manufacturer assumes that nobody really knows how ritalin affects the body, the insert notes: "The mechanism of action on a person is not fully understood ...". Addicts grind it on a powder that can be sniffed. Ritalin is soluble in water, it is easy to transfer into a liquid form and to make a prick.

This substance has the same effect on the body as other forms of activators - loss of appetite, insomnia, accelerated heartbeat. Misuse of this drug, especially when used through the nose and in the form of injections, causes the body even more harm. The load on the heart can become fatal. Ritaline injections are also dangerous: although ritalin itself is completely soluble in water, the tablets contain small particles of insoluble filler. These insoluble substances block small blood vessels and cause serious damage to the lungs and eyes. In addition to the physical destruction of the body, even a short-term use of ritalin causes a difficult emotional state. Hallucinations and psychotic behavior are not something unusual.

Side effects of taking ritalin:

- loss of appetite
- accelerated heartbeat, increased pressure and temperature
- enlarged pupils
- sleep disturbance
- insomnia
- unnatural, variable, sometimes aggressive behavior
- hallucinations, irritability
- panic and psychosis
- significant doses can lead to convulsions, seizures and death
- irreversible damage to the blood vessels of the heart and brain leading to heart attacks, stroke and death
- destruction of the liver, kidneys and lungs
- destruction of nasal tissues when sucked through the nose
- infectious diseases and inflammation during injections
- weight loss
- disorientation
- apathy, exhaustion
- strong psychological dependence
- psychosis
- depression
- breakdown of the brain, leading to a stroke and possible epilepsy.


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Where drug addicts take money

03 Dec 2018

To avoid breaking, the addict must constantly think where to find the money for the next dose. Drugs are expensive - if the addict has already formed a physical dependence, then a day he needs to spend from $ 10 to $ 50 or more. Honest way to not earn such money, the more that a drug addict can not work. There remains only way - criminal. First, they usually steal close relatives-they take out gold jewelry, less valuable clothing, equipment, steal money from their parents.

Where drug addicts take money

They borrow money from friends and acquaintances without giving. When these sources run out, they begin to steal from strangers - they most often get into apartments, they can rob on the street, putting a knife. Girls-addicts often earn prostitution. There is another way to earn money - become a drug dealer.

Naturally, sooner or later a drug addict enters prison, unless, of course, he dies before that.

You can argue that everything depends on education - if parents raised an honest child, then he will not steal. Nevertheless, experience shows that no matter how honest, well-bred, kind a person was, no matter how crystalline his parents were, after getting to know a drug, he would turn into a deceiver and a thief. Under the influence of the drug there is a complete degradation of the personality.


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Similar to Meldonium: in Russia a new substance is tested by WADA

28 Nov 2018

Russian sport is trying to avoid a new doping scandal - to prevent it will help 9.5 million rubles and mini-pigs on the treadmills.

Each year, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes a short document. It contains a list of substances that cause doubt in WADA and therefore fall under the monitoring program. In fact, this is one of the steps necessary to declare a substance doping and to prohibit its use in sport. The new monitoring program-2018 included a substance called "Bemitil" (ethitiobenzimidazole) - and this can be a big problem for the entire Russian sport.

doping

The geography of the spread of bemitil is Russia and the CIS countries. In the West, no bemitil is produced, in practice it is not applied. That is, in fact, we are talking about drugs based on the substance, which only athletes from Russia and neighboring countries take. All as with meldonium: the ban of this substance will not affect anyone's interests - except for Russians, of course.

There is, however, one difference from the history of Mildronate - bemitil refers to a very different group of substances, and it can not be declared harmless as a "vitamin". Another drug from the same group was already causing a doping scandal with Russian athletes. We are talking about the Bromantane (Ladasten) and Spartak Moscow football. According to the ex-defender of "Spartak" Vladislav Vashchuk, in 2004 almost the whole team used bromantane. Captain Yegor Titov was then disqualified for a year.

To avoid a new doping scandal, the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) has signed a contract for the study of Bemitil. The goal is to find out the timing of removal of the drug from the body. The doping trial under the name "Bemitil" FMBA plans to prevent using 48 mini-pigs and 9.5 million budget funds.

To stimulate in Spartak style

"There is a drug. At a certain stage, you can stimulate ... "- quoted the words of the doctor of" Spartacus "Anatoly Shchukin, assistant head coach Sergei Yuran, -" What are the consequences? ", -" Yes, in principle, no. Everything goes for two or three days. "

It's about the Bromantane. For his use for a year was disqualified leader of the "Spartacus" Yegor Titov. Because of the bromantan, he could not play for the national team for Euro 2004. "My killer is Dr. Shchukin," Yegor Titov said after disqualification.

According to another former player of Spartak Vladislav Vashchuk, the Bromantane was in the blood of all the players of the team at the time of the disqualification of Titov. "We were cleaning the whole team," Vashchuk wrote on his Facebook page, "for very long, three months. Droppers, pills, blood transfusions, even a hyperbaric chamber, where cosmonauts are trained. "

Monitoring programm

Bromantane was included in the list of banned substances back in 1996. Bemitil is now in the WADA monitoring program. The problem is that both substances are part of the same group - actoprotectors and have similar mechanisms of action on the body. "I was shaking so that I could not fall asleep until 6am. All were awake, there was a feeling that energy from somewhere inside, excuse me, a pearl, "Vashchuk described the effect of using bromantane.

A potential prohibition of Bemitil is possible not only against the background of the "bromantane" past. According to Artem Katulin, a sports pharmacologist, ex-chief physician of Spartak in 2004 (the year of the doping scandal), the risk also increases because of the political background:

- Bemitil - a drug that slightly accelerates adaptation to physical stress. This is not a potent substance. I do not see the need to prohibit it. It seems to me that this is another witch-hunt, as in the case of meldonium.

About Mildronate the doctor recollects not casually. Before the Meldonium hit the banned list, he was also in the WADA monitoring program for 2015. After nine months of observation, WADA decided to ban the drug, so popular with Russian athletes. The geography of distribution of bemitil is even narrower than that of Meldonium. According to the state register of medicines, bemitil is produced only in Russia (and goes on sale under different trade names: there is, for example, "Metaprot", which consists of the same ettiobenzimidazole), while meldonium is also found in Latvia and Cyprus. Accordingly, if someone were looking for a way to inflict damage on Russian athletes, then the potential ban of bemitil would strike them even more accurately than banning meldonium.

Monitoring programm 2

By the way, the most widespread version about the origin of bemitil is also similar to the legend about meldonium: it is reported that bemitil was developed for Soviet airborne troops in Afghanistan. The drug itself was registered in mid-1983.

Despite the prescription of development from the Russian market, bemitil has not disappeared. In the state register of medicines it is reported that in 2008, bemitil was included in the register for "SKTB Technologist". This is confirmed by the information on the company's website, where it is reported that the production of bemitil.

In general, if you recall the stories with meldonium and Bromantane "Spartacus", then the probability of an early prohibition of bemitil seems very high. Apparently, this is understood in the Russian sports leadership. Apparently, to ensure that the remake of the meldonium scandal did not occur, the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBA) in late February 2018 published a state purchase of 9.5 million rubles. The study, which will last until November, should answer one question - how long it takes for the bemitil to leave the athlete's body.

Dangerous method. Mini-pigs at the limit
The method of investigating the timing of the withdrawal of bemitil from the body is quite simple: laboratory mini-pigs will be injected into the body with bemitil, after which they will be sent to the treadmills to undergo training loads under the action of the drug. Then the biomaterial is collected (all mini-pigs are pre-inserted with catheters).

On the treadmills, mini-pirogas will be subjected to intensive physical loads - "to failure." In addition to bemitil, other drugs from the WADA monitoring program, bupropion and synephrine, will also be tested. But this is a secondary task: bupropion and synephrine are used in practice outside of Russia, they have been on the monitoring list for at least ten years. FMBA before them did not pay attention, and began to examine the drugs, only after the inclusion of bemitil in the monitoring program this year.

All preparations of the mini-pigs will be administered in medium and maximum doses. In the case of bupropion and cinephrine, we are talking about 28 days of research. For bemitil, the timing is not defined - apparently, even the approximate time for the removal of the drug from the body is not yet clear.

There is, of course, a question of ethics: many animal rights activists are protesting against testing even the most necessary drugs, and testing for potential doping animals would cause a lot of protests. But in Russia, according to the president of the Center for the Protection of Animal Rights "Vita" Irina Novozhilova, there is no legal framework that would limit such research. In this case, Irina Novozhilova also doubts the effectiveness of such studies:

- Metabolism of animals and humans is so different that it will not have any practical significance. Already tons of works on this theme have been written. The way an animal's organism reacts to a certain drug does not mean that the human body will react as well. Especially when it comes to the timing of the removal of a certain drug from the body. Briefly, the director of the National Cancer Institute of the United States, Dr. Richard Clauzner, can be quoted as saying: "The history of cancer research is the history of treating mice from cancer ... For several decades now we have cured mice from cancer - and this simply does not work in humans" . So no valuable research results on mini-pigs will not bring.

There is another interesting aspect to this story: the structural unit of the FMBA, the Scientific Center for Biomedical Technologies, will be directly engaged in research. In other words, the Agency concluded a contract with its own organization. However, this is not directly related to the topic of doping and should interest organizations that are interested in corruption and violations of public procurement rules ..

The target date for the commissioning of the study is November 2018. If the scenario with melding repeats itself, and the World Anti-Doping Agency banned it in 2019, FMBA will have enough time to notify athletes and medical personnel. This is directly reported in the technical specification: "The social and economic effect of the introduction of scientific and technical products will be achieved through timely informing medical personnel about the half-life of medicinal products from the body of athletes."


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I am not an alcoholic!

26 Nov 2018

Many people believe that an alcoholic is someone who "pummles and shakes" every day in the morning and therefore he has to get drunk "for health correction", drinks any alcohol-containing liquid, up to the brake fluid, moonshine, cologne and other surrogates, drinks drinks , is never sober, and by the evening it is barely standing on its feet and with difficulty "crawls" to the house, counting all the pillars on the road forehead, beating up his wife, drinking on things, skipping work, and not holding work for more than one or two months . It is these completely depressed and degraded patients who are usually shown in television programs about the dangers of alcoholism and alcoholism in order to demonstrate their social and moral degradation. Therefore, in the public mind there was an opinion that all alcoholics are just such. And if a person still does not have such severe social and psychological consequences and degradation of the person, then his alcoholic is not considered.

I'm not an alcoholic

The fact that people do not realize that this person is sick with alcoholism is associated, first, with ignorance of the clinical manifestations of the initial stage of the disease, and secondly, with the existence of a variant of alcoholism, in which there are no obvious socio-psychological consequences.

Any disease, including alcoholism, can have similar symptoms common to all patients. This clinical picture of alcoholism is called typical. But in some patients, the symptoms of the disease differ from the well-known manifestations of it - this is called an atypical clinical picture. Atypical alcoholism can be more severe than a typical (malignant variant), but it can also be lightened (benign, or socially-compensated variant). It is the benign variant most often and "do not see" people, since there are some symptoms of the disease with him, but others do not, and the clinical picture of the disease as a whole differs significantly from the typical one.

Benign alcoholism can be recognized only by a specialist. Neither the drinker, nor his family members, nor his colleagues for many years suspect that this person is an alcoholic.

Everything begins with domestic drinking. However, each drinker believes that he will never get sick with alcoholism. He thinks: "Everyone is drinking now, not just me, not all the drunkards!". His friends-drinking companions, he does not consider alcoholics and believes that he himself will never become one.

The whole trouble is that alcoholism begins much earlier than many people think. The disease develops gradually and imperceptibly both for the drinker, and for his relatives, and for his friends. Everyone considers him a drunkard, and he is already an alcoholic, but he does not yet know about it.

The first, the initial stage of alcoholism, when neither the patient himself nor the surrounding people have any idea that he is ill, can limit himself to several years (with a typical variant), but can last for decades (in a benign variant).

The shorter the initial stage, the more unfavorable the disease; respectively, the longer the first stage, the more benign the course has alcoholism. But in either case, the initial stage will inevitably pass into the second, and with typical alcoholism - into the third; these are the patterns of alcoholic illness. Only with a benign version of alcoholism is the third, the final stage does not occur.

If you still "do not shake" in the morning, this does not mean that you do not have alcoholism (Phenotropil can help you with hangover). It is possible that you still have the initial stage of the disease, so you are "like a cucumber" in the morning. But if you drink often enough, then sooner or later this day will come. And that this did not happen, it is necessary to prevent the transition of the disease from the first stage to the second. And if you are still a drunkard, not an alcoholic, then you must prevent the transition of domestic drunkenness to alcoholism.

When in the morning "batters and shakes" and "the soul asks" to become drunk, - it is already a question of the late stages of the disease. At the same time, alcohol becomes necessary for the patient's body, and alcohol-free severe abnormalities arise - alcohol withdrawal syndrome (hangover syndrome), alcoholic psychosis ("white fever", alcoholic hallucinosis and others) and convulsive attacks can develop.

No matter how his wife (mother) persuaded to stop drinking, the "educational" measures of such a person can not be corrected. His body "requires", and the alcoholic can not cope with this independently. We need cardinal measures to normalize the disturbed metabolism in the body.

Most people judge alcoholism only by the criteria of social and moral decline and degradation of the individual, that is, according to its consequences, and they do not know about the main clinical manifestations of this disease.

Talking with patients and members of their family, it turned out that even they do not know anything about the symptoms of alcoholism and assess it by the presence (or lack) of social and moral consequences - whether they bring home wages, drink things, skip work, offend the wife . However, all this is peculiar not to the initial, but already to the second and third stages of alcoholism. Drugs, a hangover, morning you need freshen the nip, "white fever", cirrhosis of the liver - that's all that many people know about alcoholism. But these are also manifestations of late stages of the disease. And about the very first, initial manifestations of alcoholic illness are not aware not only people who do not have medical education, but even doctors of general medical practice, since in the course of psychiatry in medical institutions, narcology is studied very superficially. Therefore, in most cases, the first stage of alcoholism is regarded as domestic drunkenness.

The fact that alcohol is consumed by millions and thousands are ill with alcoholism allows each person to think that it is this cup that passes this: maybe a neighbor or someone else will get ill with alcoholism, but not himself.

What can happen someday, after many years, does not bother people. We live in the present day, we have troubles almost every day, and if there is a remedy that helps to forget about the problems, then nobody thinks that this will ever lead to illness.

Intimidation by severe consequences, when they do not occur immediately, but sometime later, is usually unsuccessful. It's fun, good and pleasant now, but what will happen in the distant future - people usually do not think, hoping that "maybe will carry". Therefore, the transmission on television, where degraded alcoholics or their disabled children are shown, is not popular. Everyone at the same time thinks: "So it's with alcoholics!" And I'm not an alcoholic, this will never happen to me. "

Perhaps, only in our country to drunkenness public opinion is so condescending, although in words it is condemned. Moreover, drunkenness can be publicly and very zealously branded by a person who himself would not be in a hurry to consult an expert in narcology, but he will never go to the doctor, because he is firmly convinced that he is not an alcoholic and will never become an alcoholic.

Drunkards are many in an environment with a low socio-intellectual level, and among the intelligentsia, and in the creative environment, and in business circles, and among major politicians and public figures. In any drinking group there are not only drunkards, but also patients with alcoholism. But neither they nor their constant drinking companions are aware of this. And to distinguish alcoholics from many of their drunkards around a layman is not so easy.

Drinking and alcoholism are not synonyms. There is a very big difference between domestic drunkenness and alcoholism.

Domestic drunkenness is not a disease, but a tribute to the traditions existing in our society, the influence of "drinking" attitudes taken in this collective (colleagues, friends or relatives), in some communities this way of life; drunkenness can also be a consequence of wrong prejudices.

Drug addiction does not require drug abuse, and a person can at any time voluntarily quit alcohol consumption or significantly reduce it without experiencing any discomfort from abstinence. Household drunkenness can be observed throughout the life of a person, and the amount of alcohol consumed may remain unchanged or increase, but to a certain extent. However, domestic drunkenness can turn into alcoholism, and therefore it is considered a vestibule of the disease.

And alcoholism is already a qualitatively different condition. Firstly, this is not a "bad" habit, but a disease that requires treatment. Secondly, unlike domestic drunkenness, a patient with typical alcoholism not only can not independently stop consumption of alcohol, but also control the amount drunk. Thirdly, a patient with alcoholism has such changes in metabolism that, with a sharp break, the body "rebels", demanding the continuation of drinking (which does not happen with household drunkenness). Fourth, household drunkenness does not have progression (that is, it does not progress), and alcoholism is a progressive disease, and even if its very first symptoms have arisen, the disease will develop steadily, and new clinical manifestations will inevitably arise, and then degradation of the person and all consequences of alcoholic illness. The outcome of a typical alcoholism is natural and inevitable.

To catch a line where drunkenness ends and alcoholism begins, - only an expert can. The drinker himself, if he does not know how alcoholism begins and how it differs from domestic drunkenness, can not determine this side.

Each disease has its own patterns of development. If a person has caught a flu, then he will have a fever, there will be an ache in the whole body, sweating, a runny nose and all other manifestations of the flu. If a person falls ill with gastritis, then he will have all the symptoms of this disease, if not treated at the earliest stages.

Similarly, with alcoholism. If there are first signs, then further alcoholism will develop according to its patterns. Following the initial symptoms, the following will appear, then new ones. They arise not suddenly, but gradually, for several years. Gradually they are summed up, and after years a qualitatively new condition appears. There is no way back. The patient with alcoholism will never be able to return to the initial state and again become a domestic drunkard.

I am often asked by people who are not formally my patients, how to assess their consumption of alcohol - this is alcoholism or not yet.

Even in my practice, I know how many people who are already aware that, perhaps, in recent years they began to drink much more than before. But this is how the human psyche works - people do not like to admit their mistakes, shortcomings, negative character traits or excessive consumption of alcohol, and usually seek excuses. In the heart of understanding that he drinks too much, a person justifies his drunkenness for some external reasons or situation for his or her relatives and friends - they persuaded friends, there was a business meeting, a banquet, it was impossible to give up drinking, there were troubles or just bad things mood, I wanted to relax or get distracted from my problems and stuff. Today one reason, tomorrow another, the day after tomorrow the third, - and it turns out that a person drinks almost every day or several times a week. "It's time to tie ... - in the end the drinker decides - Everything, from tomorrow, not a drop! Well, maybe just a couple of glasses for the company ..." - and then again some "respectful" occasion, and he can not refuse.

While the use of alcohol does not affect the state of health, relationships with his wife or at work, - the drinker does not worry about anything. He believes that he drinks no more than others: just as much or more than he himself, all his friends, friends, business partners and colleagues drink. In his opinion, they are not alcoholics, and he, too, is not an alcoholic. But in fact, this may not be so at all. His friends may be drunkards, and he may already be an alcoholic. Or friends too for a long time are sick of an alcoholism, and he on them is equal, considering them healthy.

So a person continues to drink until one day early in the morning he wakes up with a dry throat and a heart-pounding heart, when a bottle of cold beer seems to him the limit of dreams, and he is ready to give everything for it.

The fact that after a "cool booze" in the morning will be bad - no one is news. Among people who drink, there is even such a saying: "If it's good today, then it will be bad in the morning."

So you know, dear reader, that if after drinking is "bad in the morning," then, first, alcoholism already exists, and secondly, it is already at least the second stage of the disease.

And how many people have such people who periodically or regularly feel "badly in the morning", but no one even assumes that this person has long been an alcoholic ?! In the conversations of drinking buddies with each other, the mention that "this morning was such a strong thirst" is a common occurrence. However, a strong thirst in the morning is one of the symptoms of a hangover. A hangover (its other names - hangover syndrome, alcohol withdrawal syndrome) means late stages of alcoholism.

But usually thirsty business is not limited. In mild cases, in a hangover state, there may be sweating, which is aggravated by physical stress, headache (but in some patients the headache never hurts) or a feeling of emptiness in the head, a decrease in appetite, lethargy, weakness, absent-mindedness, lack of assortment, inability to concentrate and tune in to work. A person needs to make an effort to get involved in his daily professional duties. He does not want to work, but he overpowers himself, looking forward to the end of the day. The efficiency and productivity of the work performed is reduced.

At the very beginning of the second stage of alcoholism, there may not be all, but only some of the listed symptoms of a hangover - first thirst, with the passage of time joins a headache. The remaining symptoms of hangover syndrome occur later, as the disease develops. And the further, the hangover is heavier. (phenotropil can cope with this problem)

Most people quite rightly consider alcoholics of those who are drunk with strong alcoholic beverages in the morning. But beer is considered a low-alcohol drink, so those who drink beer in the morning to get rid of thirst after yesterday's drinking - do not consider themselves alcoholics.

However, in this case, the alcohol concentration in the alcoholic beverage does not matter. In the language of narcologists, the use of beer or any other alcoholic beverage in the morning, in order to "improve health" - is called morning freshen the nip. But even if a person has "endured" in the morning, but "corrected his health" after work - then this is also a drunkenness, it is called late, or delayed rearing. That is, in any case, if "it's bad in the morning," if there are at least some of these symptoms, and because of this, a person is forced to resort to the help of any alcoholic drink the day after drinking, it is a matter of drunkenness, which indicates already about the second stage of alcoholism.

The banal alcoholic, if possible, is not exchanged for such "trivia" as beer, but gets drunk with his usual drink: if he prefers vodka, then he will be drunk with vodka, if port or other fortified wine - then they will get drunk. But if the alcoholic can not get vodka or wine, then he will drink any drink that is available, including surrogates. And beer or champagne for the sake of a hangover from the morning is drunk by those who seek excuses for themselves, believing that if it's low-alcohol drinks, then, he is not an alcoholic.

Alcoholism begins much earlier than many people think. From the moment of its occurrence to the appearance of hangover syndrome and its other severe symptoms, not one year has passed. But if the disease has already formed, it will necessarily progress according to its patterns, and the presence of its most important symptom (craving for alcohol) does not allow the patient with alcoholism to independently stop ayanism. The patient himself for many years may not realize that this symptom already exists, and continues to rest assured that he is able to stop drinking as soon as he wants.

People with narcology almost always turn to the late stages of the disease, when severe consequences of alcoholism have appeared. While a person in the morning gets up without symptoms of a hangover, he does not think about addiction treatment. Only the wife or parents unsuccessfully try to persuade him to stop drinking, he promises, and his family is waiting and hoping that he will "come to his senses." And the forecast of alcoholism in the far-gone cases can be unfavorable.

Therefore, we must try to identify the disease, when it is only just beginning. Better yet, do not wait for alcoholism to form, and knowing from what it starts, on time to remember, when it is still fixable.


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Why drug addicts want to be treated and refuse treatment?

21 Nov 2018

The question is not idle. Often during detoxification (especially with regard to opiate addiction), the drug addict suddenly declares that he refuses treatment and wants to discharge because "he feels healthy." As a rule, after discharge he immediately starts using drugs again. And then it becomes clear that the rejection of therapy is the result of the emergence of an attraction to drugs.

The life of a drug addict is painful and unromantic. He is immersed in an addictive environment where human dignity, friendliness and love matter only when there are drugs or money to buy them. He is forced to constantly risk, cheat, break the law or beg for money from relatives in order to avoid suffering abstinence. For private life, there is no time left. In addition, his health is severely affected by drugs, and over time he feels it more and more.

Why drug addicts want to be treated and refuse treatment

At the same time, relatives and family (if any) usually exert considerable pressure on him to stop the narcotics. In the conditions of such pressure, sooner or later the addict comes to the conclusion that he needs treatment. And turns to the doctors.

What next?

Then abstinence begins (can be treated by Phenotropil). When treated with modern methods, it proceeds very easily, but the patient's condition is not at all what he is used to. The fact is that some discomfort (and even minor pains) take place, and it is impossible to completely get rid of them. But most importantly, against the background of abstinence, the addict inevitably decreases mood and irritability and impatience increase. Any minor trouble is regarded as a real tragedy, not to mention a bad state of health. And if the motivation for treatment is relatively low (for example, the patient began to be treated to "calm" his loved ones or because of a lack of money for drugs), then the worsening of the condition during abstinence seems fatal. And the best way for his "correction" is to take a single dose of drugs. The patient is discharged, "one time" pins ... - and then everything follows the usual rut.

Another common reason for refusing treatment is a "bump". This slang term means induction (transmission, excitation) of attraction to drugs to one drug addict by another. If there are several drug addicts in the department, and one of them very much wants to prick, he tries to convince others to help him get drugs. This is a very malign situation, and according to the proverb "one black sheep all herd spoils," most of the patients as a result of "bump" can stop treatment.

There is also a type of refusal of treatment - when drug addicts with long experience who have repeatedly undergone a course of treatment, lie down on detoxification only in order to "lower the dose" (after the course of treatment, the amount of narcotic required for each day is markedly reduced). Drug addicts enter treatment if this has a direct economic effect, i.e. the cost of a course of detoxification is much lower than the expected cost of continuing narcotization in the usual doses. Naturally, at the same time they try in every possible way to shorten the term of treatment.


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Memo for relatives and friends of drug addicts

19 Nov 2018

When relatives find out that their loved one is using drugs, they begin to fight. Often this struggle does not lead to the desired result, but to the opposite. In order that this does not happen, it is desirable to adhere to certain rules. Do not try to cope with this problem yourself. You have no relevant education, no experience in treatment and rehabilitation. Examine the problem using a variety of sources, contact the specialists working with chemical addiction, to help groups close. Do not set hard controls. Do not throw drugs, do not take money, do not lock up at home. This will only cause aggression and alienation. Try to keep a warm relationship, trust on his part.

Memo for relatives and friends of drug addicts

When you understand that your relative is using drugs or abusing alcohol:
- Offer treatment, rehabilitation or conversation with a specialist.
- Try to make sure that the information on recovery is obtained by himself, or together with you, indicate the sources where you took it.
- If he refuses: give him the opportunity to live as badly as he wants, but do not try to artificially worsen his life;
- Do not hide the problem from relatives, neighbors, but do not advertise it,
- do not make public scandals about the use;
- do not help out when you get into the police,
- do not give him any debts,
- do not cover at work or school;
- Do not clarify the relationship when he is intoxicated, do not do this also in a state of withdrawal (Cold turkey) Phenotropil can help with hangover;
- if he is sober - do not read morals,
- do not blame, do not blame, but talk about your feelings: fear, pain, grief, material loss, necessarily with the bringing of specific dates, places, actors;
- do not give him money, learn to say "no", no matter how hard, learn to resist manipulation.

The position should be as follows: "We love you but refuse to get out of the problems that you create for yourself. If you want to suffer, suffer. If you do not want to, we'll help you by sending for treatment. "

Typical errors of relatives who contribute to the development of drug addiction:

These are anti-rules, i.e. something that you can not do in any case:

- To cherish the illusion that you yourself can cope with the chemical dependency of a loved one that is able to remake it.
- Never talk to a drug addict about his addiction, be afraid to upset him, be afraid that it can lead to a scandal, I will disrupt.
- Never talk to anyone outside the home about the presence of a drug addict in the family, believing that it's embarrassing, to make a family secret out of it, and to people who are confronted with it to lie and cover a drug addict in front of them.
- To build family relations so that the addict in them is the central person, to build family plans, given whether he uses it or not, try not to invite friends into the house when he is in use.
- To fear to bring the addict suffering and inconvenience. If he lies a layer, dirty his own best suit with mud or vomit, made debts, did not go to work or study - bring everything WITH IT NOT in order.
- Solve all problems for him, thinking that he is not good at making responsible decisions, and that you yourself know how to do better.
- Build relationships so that all other family members (even younger children) should behave more responsibly, because the family is an addict.
Ignore the problems of everyone else in the family, perceive them as something insignificant or as an annoying hindrance, referring to them in the style: "Without you, enough cares."
- Get used to the aggression of a drug addict, and sometimes with violence (moral or physical), explain to younger family members that adults are sometimes allowed to behave this way, but children will be punished if they start copying adults.
- Let him chemically control the mood of his loved ones: when he is happy, everyone is happy when he is intoxicated, aggressive or full of self-pity, everyone is depressed and withdrawn.
- Try to distract from drugs, invent useful and interesting activities for him, hobbies, entertainments, do not upset him, do not get nervous, create "conditions" for not using ...
- To feed the illusions that the main thing in the family is to keep the chemically dependent from the future use, stop it, hinder it, and everything else is secondary.


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Phenazepam - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

15 Nov 2018

Antidepressant: Phenazepam (Phenazepamum)

Active ingredient: bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine (bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepini)

Analogs: Diazepam, Elzepam, Oxazepam, Phezanef, Phenzitat, Tranquesipam, Phesipam, Phenorelaxane

Phenazepam is classified as tranquilizer. Removing anxiety, fear and anxiety, this drug has a good soothing effect, accompanied by some hypnotic effect.

Phenazepam - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

The analysis of the drug by many scientists and physicians has led to the fact that phenazepam has by now acquired a solid reputation as a highly effective and at the same time very safe means.

High efficiency of the drug is confirmed by a number of Russian clinical trials. For example, in the treatment of patients with depression, the spectrum of the highest efficacy of phenazepam was identified. It turned out that the drug best helps with anxiety-depressive conditions (in about half of cases the symptomatology disappeared completely, while a third of patients had a significant improvement in the condition), affective-delusional attacks, and also in the syndrome of depersonalization. In general, the positive effect reached about? patients taking phenazepam. At the same time there were no serious side effects, which once again confirms the reputation of phenazepam as an extremely safe drug.

As a means of treating neurotic conditions (with a predominance of anxiety and fear), such as neuroses, schizophrenia and psychosomatic diseases, phenazepam was the most highly effective. In the first days (or even hours) of such treatment, patients demonstrated a sharp decrease in emotional tension, fear, anxiety, and emotions. Simultaneously, normal sleep returned, irritability and aggressiveness decreased. Further administration of the drug only improved the overall picture.

With abstinence, the drug acted in the first hours, relieving mood disorders, tension, anxiety, fear. Accompanying this soporific effect allowed patients to sleep normally, without suffering from nightmarish dreams.

The effect of taking the drug comes in a very short time: positive changes can be felt already in the first days or even hours. And the maximum reduction in symptoms occurs around the 10th day of treatment. Thus, phenazepam is perfectly suitable for a quick and effective fight against powerful emotional experiences, strong feelings of fear, anxiety accompanied by sleep disturbances, and also by many obsessions.

Pharmachologic effect:
Phenazepam has anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), sedative (calming), hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effect.

Indications for use: Anxiety, irritability, emotional lability, nervous tension and other conditions falling under the category of neurotic, neurotic, psychopathic and psychopathic conditions.

In general, the scope of the use of phenazepam is extensive: insomnia, obsessive conditions, withdrawal syndrome with addiction and alcoholism, epileptic seizures, the etiology of which can be very different, myoclonic and temporal epilepsy, reactive psychoses, senesto-hypochondriacal disorders. The drug is used in schizophrenia as an antipsychotic drug.

In addition, phenazepam is used in neurology for a number of diagnoses (tick, muscle stiffness, hyperkinesia, athetosis). It is also used by anesthetists as a component of introductory anesthesia.

Contraindications: Phenazepam is prohibited for use in people with hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, pregnant and lactating women, as well as minors. In addition, do not use the drug for acute poisoning with drugs, alcohol, and hypnotic drugs. Other contraindications: severe depression, respiratory failure, shock, angle-closure glaucoma, coma, myasthenia gravis.

Dosage and administration: Phenazepam is taken as intramuscularly / intravenously, orally. The choice of method of taking and dosage depends on the type and severity of the problem.

If you need to shortly terminate anxiety, fear, psychomotor agitation (or in autonomic paroxysms or psychotic conditions), the drug is often taken in / m or in / in.

The adult initial dose is 0.5-1 mg, which is equivalent to 0.5-1 ml of 0.1% solution, the average daily dose is 3-5 mg (or 3-5 ml of 0.1% solution). In severe cases, the dosage can be increased up to 7-9 mg (or 7-9 ml of 0.1% solution).

Serial epileptic seizures. In this case, the initial dose (IM or IV) is 0.5 mg (or 0.5 ml 0.1% solution). The average daily dosage is 1-3 mg (or 1-3 ml of a 0.1% solution).

Diseases with increased muscle tone. Intramuscularly, adhering to a dose of 0.5 mg (0.5-1 ml of 0.1% pactworp) 1-2 times a day.

As a premedication preparation. Dosage - iv, slowly injected 3-4 ml of 0.1% solution of the drug.

It should be remembered that the maximum dose should not exceed 10 mg per day. The cancellation must be gradual. If there are stable improvements, it makes sense to switch to oral use of phenazepam.

Usage:
- In cases of sleep disorders, 250-500 micrograms are taken half an hour before going to bed
- With epilepsy - 2-10 mg per day
- When alcohol withdrawal is 2-5 mg per day

Side effects: At the first stage of treatment, drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, distracted attention, disorientation, unstable gait (in the first place all this concerns elderly patients) may occur. Also, there is a possibility of dry mouth feeling, nausea, heartburn, constipation or diarrhea, anorexia, urinary retention, skin itching, rash (allergic reactions).

Storage conditions: The temperature regime is 15-25 degrees Celsius. Do not allow children to fall into the hands. Store in a dark place.

Conditions for selling from pharmacies: Phenazepam is dispensed on prescription.


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Coaxil - Special instructions

13 Nov 2018

For a long time, tianeptine was considered the safest antidepressant, and was offered as a treatment for heroin addiction. Tianeptine - an antidepressant which was considered as not causing addiction and selling coaxil without a prescription. In the description of the application, and now indicated in the paragraph "Pharmacological properties" that "does not cause addiction ...", which is not true.

Coaxil - Special instructions

With the help of "brilliantly conducted" advertising company "Servier" the drug has become widely known among patients and doctors. And, the last two, three years, the curiosity is rather sad ...

To date, there is no serious scientific research, why coaxil as a drug, differing in the mechanism of action and the chemical composition of opiate-containing drugs, causes similarity of dependence, both in mental and physical manifestations.

When exposed to the body, in addition to the central nervous system, thrombophlebitis and severe thrombosis of the vessels often result, which lead to tissue necrosis and gangrene, which leads to forced amputation of the affected limbs. In the event that the drug is administered intravenously.

At the moment, the use of narcotics by co-addicts as a narcotic becomes more and more popular as an alternative to opium drugs, it is caused by cheapness, compared with heroin, and easy accessibility, many do not know what the effects of coaxil can be. Coaxil can be bought in pharmacies and its purchase is not difficult, coaxil price is not great. In preparation, for intravenous administration, does not require, such as "screw", the cost of time, and does not need additional ingredients. But the worst thing about using coaxil as a drug is that, in addition to the strongest physical dependence, this drug is able to cause a psychological dependence that exceeds dependence on other drugs, including it destroys the entire organism as a whole, surpasses heroin or other drugs in destructive power.

Four years ago, in one of the pharmaceutical publications, information was published that the drug on sales beats all records in absolute monetary terms among other existing psychotropic antidepressants in our country.


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First stage of alcoholism

08 Nov 2018

Duration from 1 year to 5 years.

First stage of alcoholism

At this stage of the disease, the patient develops a syndrome of mental dependence: constant thoughts about alcohol, a rise in mood in anticipation of drinking, a feeling of dissatisfaction in a sober state. The pathological attraction to alcohol is manifested in a situationally conditioned form. "Thrust" for alcoholic beverages occurs in situations related to the possibility of drinking: family events, professional holidays ...

There is a syndrome of altered reactivity in the form of growing tolerance. The tolerance of alcohol increases, there is the ability to take high doses daily, vomiting disappears with an alcohol overdose, palimpsests appear (forgetting certain episodes of the intoxication period). With mild alcoholic intoxication, mental functions are accelerated, but some of them - with the loss of quality.

Reduced quantitative control in the patient, a sense of proportion is lost. Following the initial doses of alcoholic beverages and the appearance of light intoxication, there is a desire to continue drinking. The patient drinks to medium or heavy intoxication.

The remaining symptoms of alcoholism at its first stage still do not have time to form. Physical dependence on alcohol is absent, the effects of alcoholism can be limited to asthenic manifestations and neurological dysfunctions.


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